History 19th Century 2

Part of The Irish Famine Memorial Boston
Part of The Irish Famine Memorial Boston

[Link to Creative Commons licence photo credit: debaird some rights reserved.]

Emancipation, Famine & Religion: Ireland under the Union, 1815–1870 Ireland: society and economy, 1815–1870. * 1. Ireland in 1815
* 2. Agriculture & living standards
* 3. Agricultural crisis and industrial decline
* 4. The collapse of the wool and cotton industries
* 5. Pre-famine crisis?
* 7. The Great Famine
* 8. Did the British government do enough?
* 9. Post-famine adjustment.
by Séan Connolly Multitext Project in Irish History

Robert Peel and Ireland 1841-46Daniel O’Connell could expect little from Sir Robert Peel and the Conservatives because they wanted to maintain the Act of Union. Also, it was O’Connell who had labelled Peel ‘Orange Peel‘, and had been party to the Lichfield House Compact to oust Peel from office. There was no love lost between the two men. – Dr Marjorie Bloy. Web of English History

The Irish FamineA million people are said to have died of hunger in Ireland in the late 1840s, on the doorstep of the world’s richest nation. Ideology helped the ruling class avoid grappling with the problem of mass starvation. Jim Donnelly describes how. BBC History

The Great Famine: The National ArchivesSources in the National Archives for researching the Great Famine by Marianne Cosgrave, Rena Lohan and Tom Quinlan. Of the various offices and boards that constituted the Irish administration, the ones which were affected in a very direct way were:The Chief Secretary’s Office; The Poor Law Commission;
The Relief Commission; The Office of Public Works. The National Archives

The Famine in Cavan County Cavan was among the worst hit counties by the Famine. Cavan Museum has a Letter by Fr James Brady to the Anglo Celt; Doctor Charles Halpin’s letter; A report made to the Anglo Celt; an Anonymous report to the Anglo Celt Cavan Museum

The Famine, The Times, and Donegal Between August, 1845, and January, 1846, just at the onset of the Famine in Ireland, The Times newspaper published a series of letters written by one Thomas Campbell Foster of the Middle Temple, barrister-at-law, whom The Times had appointed as its own ‘Commissioner to study the condition of the people of Ireland.‘ Foster took the task seriously, travelled extensively throughout the country, and in all wrote forty letters which, following publication in “The Times”, appeared in book form, published by Chapman and Hall, London, in 1846. Vindicator.ca – Linking Canada and Ireland

The Famine in MayoThe first reports of blight appeared in September 1845. For one third of the country’s population, the potato was the sole article of diet. In County Mayo it was estimated that nine tenths of the population depended on it. Any other crops or farm animals a smallholder had, went to pay rent. Mayo Ireland

‘Teaching the FamineThe point has been made – for example, has been made to me recently by President Mary Robinson – that the 100th anniversary was somehow still too close to the Famine. Evidently we are not dealing only with anniversaries, but with very longterm processes of healing and remembering.‘ Patrick O’Sullivan Irish Diaspora Studies

The Poor Law in Ireland, 1838-1948During the 19th and early 20th centuries a considerable number of Irish people were vulnerable to want. How to respond to poverty in Ireland and to the social problems associated with it, exercised the minds of economists, politicians and philanthropists throughout this period. After more than three decades of inquiry and debate over the desirability and feasibility of introducing a statutory system of poor relief, the Irish poor law was passed by the Westminster parliament in 1838.The poor law remained the primary form of poor relief in Ireland until the 1920s, and in Northern Ireland until after the Second World War. – Institute of Historical Research, University of London.

Research Guide to the records of the Poor Law In general, the minute books of poor law unions have a reasonably good survival rate, but it is unusual for other records to survive in quantity. However, some of the poor law collections held by the National Archives are remarkable for the range of records which they contain.The National Archives

Views of The Famine Reports comment and etchings from Illustrated London News – Cork Examiner – Pictorial Times – Punch – Oxford to Skibbereen etc, compiled by Steve Taylor Vassar University.

Charles Stewart Parnell
Parnell was a protestant landlord whose family estate was at Avondale, Co. Wicklow. He was first elected to parliament in the Meath by-election of April 1875 and joined the Home Rule Party led by Isaac Butt. Parnell was only twenty-nine when he entered parliament. Clare People part of Clare Library

BoycottingAt a public meeting in 1880 Parnell put the question to his audience: ‘What are we to do with a tenant who bids for a farm from which his neighbour has been evicted?” The moreviolent spirits recommended shooting, but Parnell himself had a proposal to offer which he rightly believed could be made far more effective. He expounded it at length, clearly, and emphatically. In substance it was, that such a person should “be left severely alone, put into a moral Coventry, isolated from his kind as if he was a leper of old‘. It was put in motion immediately against Captain Boycott of Connemara, agent of Lord Erne.Catholic Encyclopedia

see also
Captain Charles BoycottCaptain Charles Cunningham Boycott (March 12, 1832 — June 19, 1897) was a British land agent whose ostracism by his local community in Ireland as part of a campaign for agrarian tenants’ rights in 1880 gave the English language the verb to boycott, meaning ‘to ostracise‘. Wikipedia

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