History 18th Century

Part of The Irish Famine Memorial Boston
Part of The Irish Famine Memorial Boston

[Link to Creative Commons licence photo credit: debaird some rights reserved.]

The Williamite Penal Laws
Eighty percent of the population of Ireland, owning one third of the land, were Roman Catholics. All suffered from the Penal laws of 1697-1727. From the reign of Elizabeth I when the Church of England became the Established Church, there had been attempts made to eradicate Catholicism from the British Isles. Under William III this was enshrined in a series of laws that Edmund Burke described as ‘well-fitted for the oppression, impoverishment and degradation of a people as ever proceeded from the perverted ingenuity of man‘. –A Web of English History. Dr Marjorie Bloy

Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery From the consolidation of English power in 1691 until well into the nineteenth century, religion was the gulf which divided the colonial rulers of Ireland from the native majority. – University of Minnesota Law Library

Irish Famine 1740–1741 The Irish Famine of 1740–1741 was perhaps of similar magnitude to the better-known Great Famine of 1845-1852. Unlike the famine of the 1840s, which was caused in part by a fungal infection in the potato crop, that of 1740-41 was due to extremely cold and then rainy weather in successive years, resulting in a series of poor harvests. Hunger compounded a range of fatal diseases. The cold and its effects extended across Europe, and it is now seen to be the last serious cold period at the end of the Little Ice Age of about 1400-1800. –Wikipedia

Edmund Burke 1729-1797. Edmund Burke was born in Dublin, January 12, educated at a Quaker boarding school and at Trinity College, Dublin. One of the foremost political thinkers of 18th century England, Burke died July 9, 1797, and was buried in a little church at Beaconsfield. –The History Guide.Steven Kreis

Edmund Burke: Reflections on The Revolution In France In a Letter Intended to Have Been Sent to a Gentleman in Paris –The Art Bin. Karl-Erik Tallmo

1760-1789 Overview In 1782 the Anglican minority’s campaign for greater political independence resulted in the establishment of what is often referred to as Grattan’s parliament after its main proponent, Henry Grattan. The limited political autonomy which this enjoyed was short-lived. Full, direct rule from Westminster was reimposed by the Act of Union of 1800, which took effect in 1801. – A Web of English History. Dr Marjorie Bloy

Land Holding in Ireland 1760-1880 Until about 1900 the greater part of the land in Ireland (97% in 1870) was owned by men who rented it out to tenant farmers rather than cultivating it themselves. As in England, the individual wealth of members of the land-owning class varied considerably, depending on the size, quality and location of properties. –A Web of English History. Dr Marjorie Bloy

Agrarian Rebels 1761-1791 Shortly after Earl Fitzwilliam took up office as lord lieutenant in 1795, he was shocked to discover that the Defenders, a militant Catholic secret society, were appearing every night in arms in County Meath.From The men of no property, Irish Radicals and Popular Politics in the Late Eighteenth Century, by Jim Smyth, 1992. –Sean McGoldrick’s 1798 site.

Chronology of 1798(Sources used in compilation of chronology: A new history of Ireland VIII. A chronology of Irish history to 1976. A companion to Irish history Part I, edited by TW Moody, FX Martin, FJ Byrne, 1982; The Man from God Knows Where. Thomas Russell, 1767-1803, Denis Carroll, 1995; Ireland in the age of Imperialism and Revolution, RB McDowell.) –Sean McGoldrick’s 1798 site.

The Battle of Antrim The Battle of Antrim was fought on June 7, 1798, during the Irish Rebellion of 1798 between British troops and Irish insurgents led by Henry Joy McCracken.–Wikipedia

Irish Rebellion of 1798 The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Irish: Éirí Amach 1798; Scots: Turn Oot 1798), or 1798 rebellion as it is known locally, was an uprising in 1798, lasting several months, against the Kingdom of Ireland under George III of Great Britain. The United Irishmen, a republican revolutionary group influenced by the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, were the main organising force behind the rebellion. – Wikipedia


Tribute To Heroes Of ’98 At Enniscorthy Aka Heroes Of 1798 Remembered Lner (1938)
British Pathé

1798 Rebellion And Waterford The Rev. R.H. Ryland in his History of Waterford published in 1824 made the following comments on the period: ‘It was not until 1797 that they (United Irishmen) first made their appearance in the province of Munster. At this period they had increased to a most enormous force – Every exertion was used by them to seduce the soldiery of the different towns.‘ Willie Fraher. –Waterford County Museum.

United Irish Uprising in Newfoundland in April 1800, rumours flew through St. John’s, Newfoundland that up to 400 Irishmen had taken the secret oath of the Society of the United Irishmen. –Wikipedia

Humbert’s Army of Ireland, 1798 ‘After having obtained the greatest successes and made the arms of the French Republic triumph during my stay in Ireland, I have at length been obliged to submit to a superior force of 30,000 troops.‘ General Humbert’s Report to the French Directory after Ballinamuck. –Sean McGoldrick’s 1798 site

Original Declaration of the United Irishmen Declaration of the United Irishmen by Theobald Wolfe Tone – WikiSource

The Irish Immigrant Community in Eighteenth-Century LondonIrish immigrants have formed an important part of the London population from at least the early seventeenth century, becoming particularly associated with seasonal labour, street selling, and the areas around St Giles in the Fields. Among the poor, Irish men and women formed a particularly large percentage. At the end of the eighteenth century, Matthew Martin found over a third of the 2000 beggars he interviewed were Irish. The Irish are very well represented in the Proceedings. –The Proceedings of the Old Bailey

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