History 17th Century

Part of The Irish Famine Memorial Boston
Part of The Irish Famine Memorial Boston

[Link to Creative Commons licence photo credit: debaird some rights reserved.]

Calendar of The State Papers Relating to Ireland in the Reign of Elizabeth, 1 November, 1600– 31 July, 1601 The papers calendared in this volume continue the story of Mountjoy’s government for the nine months between 1 November, 1600, and 31 July, 1601. A few weeks after the latter date, the long-expected Spaniards arrived at Kinsale, and the final struggle began by which Ireland was for ever annexed to England. The papers deal in the main with the “journeys” of the Lord Deputy into Ulster and Leinster, with the strengthening and establishment of the English garrisons at Lough Foyle, and with the pacification of Munster. –archive.org

The Siege of Kinsalewas the ultimate battle in England’s conquest of Gaelic Ireland. It took place during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, at the climax of the Nine Years War – a rebellion of Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, Hugh Roe O’Donnell and other Irish clan leaders against English rule. Owing to Spanish involvement, and the strategic advantages to be gained, the battle also formed part of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604), the wider conflict of Protestant England against Catholic Spain.– Wikipedia

The Siege and Battle of KinsaleOn the 23d of September, 1601, a Spanish fleet entered the harbour of Kinsale with 3,400 troops under the command of Don Juan del Aguila. They immediately took possession of the town: and Del Aguila despatched a message to Ulster to O’Neill and O’Donnell to come south without delay. From A Concise History of Ireland by P. W. Joyce. – Library Ireland

Carriganass Castle The history of the castle records the fortunes of the O’Sullivan Beare Chieftains and traces the decline of the old Gaelic aristocracy through the Desmond Rebellion, The Munster Plantation, The Battle of Kinsale and the Flight of the Earls. – Carriganass Castle website

The Retreat of O’Sullivan Beare (1603)
After the capture of Dunboy, Donall O’Sullivan the lord of Beare and Bantry had no home; and finding that he could no longer maintain himself and his followers where he was, he resolved to bid farewell to the land of his inheritance and seek a refuge in Ulster. On the last day of the year 1602 he set out from Glengarriff on his memorable retreat, with 400 fighting men, and 600 women, children, and servants. The march was one unbroken scene of conflict and hardship. –Library Ireland

March 1603: The Treaty of Mellifont. Mountjoy received O’Neill’s submission here on the 29th march 1603. O’Neill knelt before the Deputy and pleaded pardon for his actions and swore to be loyal to the crown and not seek further assistance from foreign powers. He was granted pardon and was restored as the Earl of Tyrone. During the negotiations many points were discussed including the contentious issue of religious tolerance. –Flight of the Earls

The Flight of the Earls The Flight of the Earls by Tadhg Ó Cianáin, edited from the author’s manuscript, with translation and notes. Paul Walsh (ed), First edition [xx + 268 pages] St. Patrick’s College Maynooth (1916). – CELT (at UCC)

The Flight of the EarlsOn the 14th September 1607, a group of Ireland’s noble elite left from Donegal to find refuge in Europe and seek assistance for their cause in Ireland. They would never return. This episode in Irish history would become known as ‘Imeacht na nIarlai’ / the Flight of the Earls. It marked the end of an ancient Irish order that had survived over 1000 years and made way for the Plantation of Ulster. Note: under Resources is a link to History Ireland – The Flight of the Earls Special Issue
Flight of the Earls Imeacht na nIarlaí

The First Plantations The main visible result of Queen Mary’s short reign was the attempted plantation of Leix and Offaly, which were shired under the names of King’s and Queen’s Counties, and granted during the Vice-royalty of Lord Sussex to sundry tenants, most of whom were “mere English,” but who were soon so ruined by the old inhabitants that many of them had relet their grants to the original Irish owners. –Library Ireland

The Cromwellian Settlement The execution of Charles I in 1649, on the orders of Oliver Cromwell, brought the English Civil War to an end. England became a Commonwealth or republic ruled by parliament with Cromwell as Lord Protector. Cromwell and his army of well trained and experienced soldiers, called Ironsides, came to Ireland in August 1649 with the intention of subduing the rebellion and stamping out all opposition to parliament. – by Catherine O’Donavan Clare Library

The Cromwellian Catastrophe in Ireland: an Historiographical Analysis (PDF) Despite the ‘relevance’ of its constituent motifs to the twentieth century,Cromwellian Ireland has traditionally been an unfashionable topic for historical research. This is primarily due to the fact that source material is scant, fragmented, and has always been a formidable impediment in research efforts. James Hampton, Queen’s University. –Gateway | An Academic History Journal on the Web: Spring 2003

Irish Confederate Wars The Irish rebellion Oliver Cromwell suppressed in 1649 was the later stage of an uprising that had been going on since 1641. On October 23, 1641, 40 years after the great rebellion of Hugh O’Neill, earl of Tyrone, the Irish rose in revolt, first in Ulster, then later in the rest of Ireland. About 3,000 English and Scottish settlers were killed in the initial uprising. –HistoryNet.com

Down Survey of Ireland Taken in the years 1656-1658, the Down Survey of Ireland is the first ever detailed land survey on a national scale anywhere in the world. The survey sought to measure all the land to be forfeited by the Catholic Irish in order to facilitate its redistribution to Merchant Adventurers and English soldiers. Copies of these maps have survived in dozens of libraries and archives throughout Ireland and Britain, as well as in the National Library of France. This Project has brought together for the first time in over 300 years all the surviving maps, digitised them and made them available as a public online resource.

The Battle of the Boyne
(Irish: Cath na Bóinne) was fought in 1690 between two rival claimants of the English, Scottish and Irish thrones – the Catholic King James and the Protestant King William, who had deposed James in 1688. The battle, won by William, was a turning point in James’ unsuccessful attempt to regain the crown and ultimately helped ensure the continuation of Protestant supremacy in Ireland. – WikipediaTCD

The Battle of the Boyne
James, a Roman Catholic, had lost the throne of England in the bloodless ‘Glorious Revolution‘ of 1688. William was Prince of Orange, a Dutch-speaking Protestant married to James’s daughter Mary, and became king at the request of parliament. – W3Perl Irish History

The Battle of the Boyne Both kings commanded their armies in person. William had 36,000 men and James had 25,000 – the largest number of troops ever deployed on an Irish battlefield. English, Scottish, Dutch, Danes and Huguenots (French Protestants) made up William’s army (Williamites), while James’ men (Jacobites) were mainly Irish Catholics, reinforced by 6,500 French troops sent by King Louis XIV. At stake were the British throne, French Dominance in Europe and religious power in Ireland. –The Battle of the Boyne

The Treaty of Limerick, 1691 Articles agreed upon the third day of October; one thousand six hundred and ninety-one, between the right honourable sir Charles Porter, knight, and Thomas Coningsby, esq., lords justices of Ireland, and his excellency the baron de Ginkel, lieutenant-general, and commander in chief of the English army, on the one part, and the right honourable Patrick earl of Lucan, Piercy viscount Galmoy, colonel Nicholas Purcel, colonel Nicholas Cusack, sir Toby Butler, colonel Garret Dillon, and colonel John Brown, on the other part, in the behalf of the Irish inhabitants in the city and county of Limerick, the counties of Clare, Kerry, Cork, Sligo, and Mayo: – CELT Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork

Rules and Constitution for the Continuation of Spiritual Exercises and Moral Conferences of All the Irish Priests and Schollars Dwelling Together or Separately in the City and Suburbs of Paris
[ca. 1680-84] Issued by Archbishop of Paris, Hardovinde Beaumont Perefixe, d. 1670; perhaps drawn up by John O’Molony, Lord Bishop of Kilallow. Concerns study at the College of Cluny and the College of St. Barbara at the University of Paris. – A series of images made available under a Creative Commons Licence by Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale

The Wild Geese As part of the Treaty of Limerick in 1691, the Irish forces of Patrick Sarsfield, who had fought the army of William of Orange to a standstill, were given the option of sailing to France to join the Stuart King, James II, in exile. –The Wild Geese.com

Wild Geese Heritage Museum and Library
The story of the Wild Geese who plotted new lives for themselves in other lands, and of many who died fighting each other in diverse armies and strange countries. In Memoriam Sean Ryan. –Wild Geese Heritage Museum and Library

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